Chapter 35
From Isolation to War

Section 1: United States Broadens its relations with other countries

American Foreign policy in the 1930's was influenced by two basic considerations
 1] the Great Depression 2] rise of dictatorships

In 1933 the United States recognized the Soviet Union
 a]communist regime had been in power for 16 years.
 b]increased trade between the two countries would be helpful to the United States.

Filipinos get independence in 1934
Tydings-McDuffie Act established Commonwealth

United States improves relations with Latin America with Good Neighbor Policy.
 a]Self-interest as well as a genuine desire for friendship motivated the Good Neighbor Policy

 b]Montevideo Pact: U.S. policy is against armed  intervention

Good Neighbor Policy in action

 1] 1934 United States Canceled Platt Amendment
 2] troops were finally withdrawn from Haiti
 3] 1936 United States gave up right to intervene in Panama's affairs
 4]United States gives up control over Dominican Republic custom houses
 5]United States allows Mexico to confiscate  properties of U.S. investors

International trade agreements

Trade Agreements Act of 1934: Congress authorized the President to raise or lower existing tariffs.

Reciprocal trade agreements:  A nation that lowered its tariffs on U.S. goods would in turn. receive more favorable Tariffs on the goods that it sent to the U.S.

Most favored-nation clause: offered any country the opportunity to be treated as well as the country seemingly most favored in any other tariff agreement.

SECTION TWO: Americans try to follow a policy of isolationism

Aggression:  unprovoked attack on or invasion of another country.

Totalitarian:  Dictatorship that exercises total control over a nation and suppresses individual freedom. [no rights]

Fascism: government where all political, economic, and cultural powers are in the hands of the state.

Adolf Hitler:  Austrian-born, dictator of Germany, German people called him their Fuehrer [leader]

Benito Mussolini: Leader in Italy, fascist.

Josef Stalin:  Succeeded Lenin as leader of Soviet Union.

Dictatorship: form of government in which one person or a small group of people completely controls the government and people of a nation.  [the leader of such a government is called a dictator]

Dictatorships scorned democratic rights of free speech and free press.

AXIS POWERS:  Italy, Germany, and Later Japan

Isolationism: U.S. should isolate itself from other peoples wars  [noninvolved]

Why did American's practice isolationism?

1]  Americans were disillusioned about the results of WWI
2]  League of Nations had not become effective
3]  Some Americans believed the oceans would protect then
4]  Pacifists believed all wars were wrong
5]  many Americans believed that the governments first  responsibility was to combat the depression


Johnson Debt Default Act:  This act forbade the American government and private citizens to lend money to any country that had defaulted, or failed to repay, its war debts.

Neutrality Laws:
 1] prohibited the shipment of munitions to belligerents
2] authorized president to list materials to be sold to belligerents on "cash and carry"    basis
3] unlawful for Americans to travel on vessels of belligerent nations.



Marc h. 1936, German troops moved into Rhineland.
July. 1936, Civil War breaks out in Spain.
Oct.. 1936, Germany and Italy sign an military alliance.
Nov. 1936, Axis Powers and Japan sign Anti-Comintern Pact.
July . 1937, Japanese and Chinses troops clashed on the Chinese-
Manchurian border.
1938, Japanses were attacking along the length of the Chinese coast.

March, 1938, Hitler takes Austria, and then demands the Sudetenland a large area of Czechoslovakia.

Great Britain and France gave in to the demands of the Axis leaders in what is known as the Munich Agreement.

Appeasement:: Attempt to satisfy the demands of an aggressor in order to maintain peace.

Because of growing American concern U.S. began a military buildup as early as 1938.

Pan American Union:  21 members agree to regard threat of war against any one member as a threat to the security of all.                     ( Declaration of Lima)

1938, Monroe Doctrine extended to Canada ("U.S.  will not stand idly by"). FDR

Roosevelt's  promise to Canada and the Declaration of Lima demonstrated that the Monroe Doctrine had become a multilateral policy rather than unilateral.

Jan,1939 Franklin Delano Roosevelt asks congress to reconsider the neutrality legislation, and to increase appropriations for the armed services.


March, 1939 Hitler's armies take Czechoslovakia.

April, 1939 Mussolini's troops invade Albania.

Aug, 1939 Allies discover USSR and Germany  sign monaggression pact.

Sept, 1939 Germany invades Poland.

Sept, 1939 Great Britain and France declare war.

Oct, 1939 Germany and USSR have divided Poland.

By November the Soviets had taken Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania and attacked Finland  (WW II had began).



Nov, 1939 new neutrality law went into effect, which greartly helped the allies.

Declaration of Panama:  delegates to Pan-American Union warn all belligerent war vessels to stay out of a "safety zone" around the Americas.

Blitzkrieg: term meaning lightning war, used to describe the speed of the German advance at the begininng of WW II.

April 9, 1940 Germany overran Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxernbourg, and Northern France.

By June of 1940 Italy had declared war on France and Great Britain.

The French Government fell to the Germans in June, 1940.

The French would continue to fight on in exile under the leadership of Charles de Gaulle.

The German-Controlled French Government had its headquarters at Vichy.

Britain stood alone to fight Germany with their new leader Winston Churchill.

1940 Hitler bombs Britain and or London day after day in what is known as the "Battle of Britain".   (The Royal Air Force saves Britain)

Alien Registration Act (Smith Act):  This law reinforced laws contrilling aliens.

Lend-Lease (Arsenal of Democracy):  FDR proposes the U.S.  increase its production of military equipment to lend or lease it to the Allies.
March, 1941  Congress appropriates 7 billion dollars

Battle of the Atlantic:  German and Italian submarines were sinking tons of ships in the Atlantic by 1941.

September, 1941 FDR issued "shoot-on-sight" orders to American Warships in the "safety zone".

Convoy:  system of using warships to escort commercial vessels.

Atlantic Charter: Broad statement of war aims and a pledge to work for a world free of aggression and open to self determination.

December 7, 1941  Japan attacks Pearl Harbor.  (2000 Americans are killed).

        WAR IS DECLARED !!