INVOLVEMENT IN WORLD WAR I
1. Peacekeeping efforts fail and WWI breaks out
During the 1800's and 1900's, the nations of the world moved toward International Cooperation (ex. Red Cross)
By 1914, 30 International Agencies of government were dealing with problems shared by many nations (Transportation, communication, disease, and sanitation, etc.)
Pan-American Union: International Union of Latin American Countries. The union aimed to abolish war and to substitute for it arbitration between the American Republics.
Hague Conference: Conferences in Netherlands where nations sent delegates to settle disputes through mediation.
Mediation: Process of submitting a dispute to an impartial 3rd party for recommended solutions.
President Wilson, who took office in 1913, was a strong champion of International Understanding.
Serbian Nationalist assassinated the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary.
LINK FROM HISTORY HOUSE ON THE ASSASINATION
Austria-Hungary made certain harsh demands against Serbia, which Serbia refused to meet.
Efforts fail to solve the differences between Austria-Hungary and Serbia.
The efforts failed, and, with the support of Germany, its main ally, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
Within a week, Austria-Hungary and Germany were at war with Russia, France, and Great Britain.
Before the conflict ended, it had engulfed 30 nations on 6 continents.
Central Powers: Austria-Hungary and Germany
Allied Powers: Great Britain, Russia, and France
Nationalism: Strong feeling people have for their own country. Also the desire of people ruled by others to throw off this foreign rule and create their own nation.
Imperialism: Policy of establishing colonies and building an empire.
International Rivalries: Many countries tried to strengthen their influence by going after nearby territories.
System of Alliance: Groups of nations allied with one another.
Balance-of-Power-System: Arrangement by which strength is sufficiently divided among nations to prevent one nation or group of nations from becoming aggressive or dominant.
All of the following nations fought for the central powers:
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey.
All of the following nations fought for the Allies: France, Russia, Great Britain, and Italy (and the countries of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece, Albania, Serbia, Rumania, etc. (Slavs))
2. U.S. ATTEMPTS TO REMAIN NEUTRAL
President Wilson urged Americans to be "Neutral in fact as well as name" and "Impartial in thought as well as in action".
Most Americans were sympathetic to the Allied Powers.
Sympathy for the Allies led thousands of young Americans to enlist in the British, Canadian, and French Armed Forces.
Lafayette Escadrille: Unit of Volunteer American Fliers.
The German Army wanted to conquer France before the Russians could fully mobilize.
Because of Belgium resistance, the British had time to transport an army to Northern France.
French and British troops stopped the Germans at the Marne River in a decisive battle that is known as the 1st Battle of the Marne. (Sept. 1914)
By 1915, the war in Western Europe had reached a stalemate.
The opposing armies dug in along a 600 mile line from the Swiss border to the English border.
Neither side was able to break through this line for the next 3 years.
Trench warfare: Military actions conducted from long lines of opposing ditches rather than across open battlefields.
No-Man's Land: Thin strip of land separating the trenches.
The Central Powers and Russia were locked in combat along the entire Eastern Front.
The British blockaded the North Sea with explosive mines.
(This blockade included Neutral Countries such as Norway, Sweden, etc., and angered the U.S.A.)
Submarine warfare by the Germans alarmed Americans.
British liner Lusitania sank by German U-Boat takes 1,198 lives, 128 Americans.
The sinking of the Lusitania marked a turning point in
American feeling about the war. They began to understand that neutrality might become impossible.
American opinion was divided over Wilson's efforts to enforce neutrality.
Wilson supports a program for strengthening the Army and Navy.
National Defense Act: Program for strengthening the Army and Navy.
Wilson wins reelection with slogan "He Kept Us Out Of War"
Zimmermann Note: Message from German foreign secretary to German Minister in Mexico, it contained an offer of alliance with Germany.
(With German support, Mexico was to attack the U.S. and "Reconquer the lost territory" )
April 2, 1917 President Wilson gives "War Message".
a) Condemned Germany's sub. warfare
b) Crusade for a better world!
c) World must be made safe for Democracy
Selective Service Act: Required the registration of all men between the ages of 21 and 30.
To finance the war, the govt. borrowed money by selling WAR BONDS.
To stimulate production and prevent waste, Congress gave Pres. Wilson sweeping wartime powers.
War Industries Board: Regulated production of manufacturing and production of commodities.
War Labor Policies Board: Est. general policies affecting wages, hours, and working conditions.
Eighteenth Amendment was ratified, outlawed liquor. The sale of sugar and other commodities was limited.
The govt. encouraged people not to waste food instead of mandatory rationing.
Espionage Act: Forbade treasonable and disloyal activities.
Sedition Act: An amendment to Espionage Act. Forbade citizens from interfering with the sale of war bonds, or using "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the American form of govt.
4. AMERICAN TROOPS AND IDEALS HELP THE ALLIES WIN THE WAR
By 1917 the Allies had suffered enormous losses.
Russia was in the middle of a Revolution and signed an armisticce with Germany.
Bolsheviks: Radical Communists who seized power in Russia.
The American Navy patrolled the North Sea and bottled up the German Fleet.
The American Navy also helped to convoy merchant ships and troop transports.
Convoy system: using warships to escort large groups of commercial vessels.
Fall 1918 more than 2 million troops had landed in Europe.
From May of 1918 on the Allies wan many major battles. Finally. In July at the 2nd Battle of the Marne, the allied lines held.
July 18, Marshal Foch ordered a counter attack, the germans fell back, and the tide had turned.
Nov. 3rd, Austria signed an armistice.
[or truce; agreement to stop fighting]
The Germans sign an unpopular treaty on the 11th hr of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918.
Wilson's Fourteen Points outline U. S. View of world peace.
Self-determination: right of a country's people to decide that country's political future.
Wilson's 14th point: creation of a "general association of nations" to give "mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and snall states alike.
Section 5 U. S. refuses to join the League of Nations
Peace conference opened 1/18/19, principal characters were: David Lloyd George, of Britain, Premier Georges Cleminceau of France, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, and Woodrow Wilson.
Reparations: Payment for war damages made by a defeated country to countries that have won the war.
Treaty of Versailles" final peace treaty completed and signed June 1919.
Mandate system: Policy requiring sovereign nations to account for treatment of their colonies to the League of Nations.
League covenant did not outlaw war, but to make every effort to solve difficulties.
Economic sanctions: refusal to trade with nations breaking peace agreements.
Main weakness of the League was that it could take no action against an aggressor, couldn't guarantee existing boundaries, and failure to provide resources for economic problems.
Many Americans thought that the Treaty of Versailles was unjust. They were unwilling to have the U. S. join the League.