EXPANSION IN THE CARIBBEAN
SECTION ONE: Americans begin to build an empire in the Caribbean
Insular Cases: (does the Constitution follow the flag)
Incorporated possessions (Hawaii and Alaska) destined for statehood give constitutional rights to its citizens.
Unincorporated (Philippines) not destined for statehood were not entitled to all constitutional guarantees.
Puerto Ricans became U. S. citizens as a result of the 2nd Jones Act of 1916.
In 1852 after their constitution had been ratified Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth.
Cuba became a protectorate (term that refers to the status of a weaker nation whose affairs are supervised and partially controlled by a stronger nation.)
After the Spanish-American War Cuba was ruled by an American Army of occupation for three years.
In 1901 Congress finally turned Cuba over to the Cuban people (see Platt Amendment (worksheet) )
During the Spanish-American War the U.S. was convinced that a canal was needed.
As early as 1850, the U.S. and Great Britian had agreed on terms for a canal in the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
In 1901 Great Britain agreed to give up all rights to share canal.
Secretary of State John Hay tried to get a right of way across the Isthmus of Panama, which was then a province of Colombia.
In 1903, Colombia refused an offer by the U.S. to build a canal across Panama.
Panama, encouraged by the U.S. , then revolted against Columbia.
Panama became an independent nation in Nov. of 1903.
The U.S. hoped to gain approval to build the canal from the newly independent country
The U.S. sent ships and troop to protect the new govt. against an overthrow by Colombia.
Nov. 18, 1903 Panama granted the U.S. the right of way across the isthmus for the canal.
Dr. Walter Reed and a team of physicians proved infected mosquitoes carried yellow fever.
Dr. William C. Gorgas, the surgeon in charge of the American health program in Panama, was able to turn a deadly tropical jungle into a relatively healthful region.
1914 the canal was completed for @$400 million
Col. Geo. W. Goethals engineer in charge.
SECTION TWO: THE U.S. MODIFIES AND STRENGTHENS THE MONROE DOCTRINE
U.S. intervenes in Latin America to :
a] Protect American citizens and property
b] Protect the Panama Canal
c] Protect Latin American independence
(U.S. JUSTIFICATION FOR INTERVENTION)
MONROE DOCTRINE (warns European powers)
1] not to attempt any further colonization
2] not to interfere with independent nations in the western hemisphere
1st test: 1860"s Napoleon III tried to put Maximilian, an Austrian prince, on the Mexican throne.
2nd test: boundary dispute between British Guiana and Venezula in 1895. The U.S. settled the dispute by arbitration.
3rd test: Venezuela, T.R. urged arbitration
Drago Doctrine: Argentine minister of foreign affairs rejected the claim that any foreign nation had the right to use force to collect debts from a Latin American nation.
Roosevelt Corollary: U.S. assumed the role of "international police officer" if any nation had to interfere in Latin America the U.S. would do it.
(protectorates: Dominican Republic)
Dollar Diplomacy: Policy of the U.S. by which investment of money in Latin America in the early 1900's was encouraged.
SECTION THREE: CONFLICT BREAKS OUT BETWEEN THE U.S. AND MEXICO
Mexico lost one third to 40 % of their country to U.S. in the Mexican-American
Border disputes during 1870's and 1880's remained a source of tension.
1877 Porfirio Diaz becomes "President" (dictator)
Diaz encouraged foreign investors, foreign capital built RR's which made possible a quantum leap in industrialization.
1910 Mexican Revolution begins and President Diaz is overthrown. Starts 10 year civil war. Victoriano Huerta seized control.
President Wilson sets Policy of "watchful waiting" Wilson's refusal to intervene pleased most Latin Americans.
Finally, April 1914, President Wilson sends in marines.
ABC mediation (Argentina, Brazil, and Chile)
send representatives to meet with Mexican leaders and Wilson to formulate some recommendations.
American troops in Mexico withdrew
years of unrest in Mexico result in a major increase in Mexican immigration