Imperialism: Policy of establishing colonies and building an empire.

Industrial Revolution responsible for colonization of underdeveloped regions:
a] Factories needed raw materials

b] Manufacturers had to find new markets

c] Improvements in transportation enabled businesses to operate internationally

d] As competition for profit increased bankers and business leaders looked elsewhere

e] New instruments of warfare(repeating rifles and machine guns) enabled small bands of professional soldiers to conquer people in underdeveloped regions

Another reasons for the growth of imperialism was the attitude of the people.

Racial prejudice or the false belief that one race on people is better than another race.

American interest in colonies was advocated by people who believed in American superiority either racially or militarily.


Cuban Revolution of 1868

1] Spanish misrule: lack of reform (land was owned by a few wealthy families)

2] Economic crisis: Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act placed 40% duty on imported sugar.

3] Cuban independence movement: Cuban Republic, American sympathy was aroused by Hispanic writers and American newspapers.

United States battleship "Maine" was sunk in Havana harbor with 250 Americans killed.

Letter written to Spanish minister insulted American President.

T R says McKinley "has no more back bone than a chocolate e'clair"

United States sends an ultimatum to Spain and on April 11, 1898 President McKinley asked congress to intervene in Cuba.

Teller Resolution: United States claimed no "sovereignty, jurisdiction, or control" over Cuba.

Commodore George Dewey: sank Spanish fleet at Manila in Philippines.

Dewey gave weapons to Emilio Aguinaldo and his band of Filipino Revolutionists.

Spanish surrender Manila August 13, 1898.

TR resigns as Ass. Sec. of the Navy to lead a group of volunteers

American troops were improperly trained and equipped.

American Red Cross and Clara Barton provided aid.

Spain's Atlantic fleet was destroyed and the Spanish commander at Santiago surrendered.

Another American Army landed on the Spanish Island of Puerto Rico with no opposition.

By the terms of the peace treaty with Spain the U. S. took control of Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines, and Wake Island.

Spain also gave up all claims to Cuba.

Expansionists like T.R. and Alfred Mahan were delighted.

Section Three: U. S. takes over the Philippines, Hawaii, and Samoa

There were some opponents to taking the Philippines, They argued that in taking the Philippines the U.S. was violating its own Declaration of Independence.

Under Spanish rule the Filipinos had been the first oriental people to become predominantly Christian.

The Filipinos fought against American rule for 3 years.

In the Philippine Government Act of 1902, congress set up a government for the islands.

[first governor of the Philippines: Wm. Howard Taft]


Before 1865 relations with Hawaii was limited to traders and missionaries.

After 1865 business began to develop [sugar]

In 1887 the U.S. leased Pearl Harbor as a naval base.

Native Hawaiians led by Queen Liliuokalani end relations with all foreigners, and a revolution starts.

During the Spanish-American War the Hawaiian Islands were annexed [1898]

Presidents Cleveland's commission sent to Hawaii to investigate the Hawaiian Revolution found that the Revolution had been started largely by American business groups.

During the war with Spain the American Congress again voted on the annexation of Hawaii and it was overwhelmingly approved.


Before the Spanish-American War the only lands the U.S. owned beyond its immediate boundaries were Alaska and the Midway Islands.

[During the war the U.S. annexed Hawaii]

After the war the U.S. got Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines, and Wake Island

With new territory in the east, American responsibilities changed, especially U.S. relations with China.

Many merchants and shipowners in the U.S. and many European countries made fortunes from the China trade, when China placed restrictions on trade Europeans and Americans forced the Chinese to keep open certain ports called treaty ports.

Americans also were given the right of extraterritoriality, or a policy permitting Americans in China, charged with violations of Chinese law, to be tried in American courts in China.

Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95: Japan takes Formosa and control of Korea.

Sec. of State John Hay asks for a "Open Door Policy" for China. [such a policy would insure American businesses the ability to compete]

Chinese resented foreign intervention and a movement began to drive foreigners out.

The name of the secret society responsible for this was the "Boxers"

Because of the "Open Door Policy" and American influence, China did not lose any territory.

The "Open Door Policy" involved the U.S. in the affairs of both Russia, China, and Japan.

Before 1853 the Japanese had followed a policy of Isolation.

In 1583 Commodore Matthew C. Perry sailed into Japanese waters with a squadron of ships. Later, Japan opened its ports to American ships.

By the late 1800's, Japan was an industrial nation.

Faced with the same problems as other industrial countries they begin a policy of imperialism.

{42yrs. later Japan goes to war with China in their race for an Empire.

Ten years later Japan plunged into another war, this time with Russia.}

T.R. keeps the peace in Asia with Treaty of Portsmouth.