SECTION ONE: PROGRESSIVES OPEN THE DOOR TO REFORMS IN AMERICA
Republicans pass Dingley Tariff of 1897
(Tariff rates reach new high 57%)
Tariff: tax on certain goods imported into U.S.
Progressive Movement: Organized effort begun in early 1900"s to correct abuses and injustices in United States, Restore control of the government to the people, restore greater equality of opportunity by drawing up new rules for the conduct of business.
Robert M. LaFollette: leader of progressive movement, as governor of Wisconsin he persuaded the legislature to regulate companies with a public interest. He also started a movement for the conservation of Wisconsin's forests.
LaFollett administration promoted good Government (used university scholars to help legislators, and to serve on the new state regulatory commissions)
National Consumers League: urged the public to boycott consumer goods produced by child labor and by women who were unfairly treated. (help secure legislation in the interest of women and children)
Muckraker: Term used in the early 1900's to refer to a writer who exposed unfair practices in business and government.
Lincoln Steffens: Muckraker who summarized basic problem " development of industrialism wasn't the problem facing Americans but the source of evil was privilege the demand for special privileges from government"
Ida M. Tarbell: another muckraker wrote magazine article critical of Standard Oil.
Ray Stannard Baker: another muckraker who wrote about segregation and discrimination of American Blacks.
SECTION TWO: PROGRESSIVES PROMOTE MORE DEMOCRATIC FORMS OF GOVERNMENTS
(people of the early 1900's agreed that to end corruption the people had to regain control of government.)
Australian ballot: ballot printed at public expense that lists all candidates and that is cast in secret.
Initiative: enables voters in a state to initiate, or introduce, legislation.
Referendum: a petition that places a bill before all the state's voters.
Recall: voters can remove an elected government official before the official's term expires.
Direct primary: election in which registered members of a political party choose the party's candidates for office (a nominating election)
Although the progressives did little if anything to secure the vote for blacks, many promoted women's suffrage.
Vigorous participation of women in the war effort in WW 1 broke down much opposition to women's suffrage.
In 1920, with the ratification of the 19th Amendment by required number of states, the right of women to vote throughout the US was written into the Constitution.
Reform of City Government
Leaders in Galveston, Texas, create a type of government called the "commission form of government"
The people of Staunton, Virginia, developed the city manager form of government: city government organized whereby a city employs an appointed administrator to direct the government and the operations of the city.
T.R. PROMISES AMERICANS A "SQUARE DEAL"
In September of 1901, McKinley was shot, Vice President Theodore Roosevelt became the new President.
1902 Pennsylvania coal mine strike: Roosevelt responsible for
federal government action which allowed miners to win their demands against
large RR companies.
Some progressives fought the exploitation of blacks. However, progressives as a whole neglected the plight of Black Americans.
T. Roosevelt also, did little to help Blacks.
Election of 1904: T. Roosevelt enjoyed widespread popularity.
Roosevelt's campaign slogan "Square Deal"
Because of Teddy Roosevelt-Supreme Court will study the effect a trust will have on the public when considering restraint of trade.
Roosevelt and Progressives pass:
Meat Inspection Act required government approval of all meat shipped from one state to another.
Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 forbade manufacture, sale, or transportation of impure food and patent-medicines containing harmful ingredients.
These acts helped to strengthen the developing theory that the Federal Government was responsible for protecting the public welfare.
SECTION FOUR: T.R. ACTS TO CONSERVE AMERICA'S NATURAL RESOURCES
Conservation: Preservation and protection of natural resources to prevent their exploitation and destruction.
President Roosevelt awakened public interest to the need for conservation aroused congress to action, and managed to get the federal and state governments to adopt new policies.
Roosevelt supported the Newlands Reclamation Act. This act provided that money from the sale of public lands in 16 western states and territories was to be used to build irrigation projects that would reclaim wasteland.
White House Conservation Conference resulted
in formation of 41 state conservation agencies.
SECTION FIVE: THE PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT GAINS AND LOSES UNDER TAFT
Roosevelt would not run for President in 1908. William Howard Taft of Ohio is the Presidential candidate of the Republican Party and wins easily.
Taft, a conservative, will pass many laws progressives had favored.
Taft administration was partly responsible for the adoption of a Constitutional Amendment to make possible a Federal Income Tax. (16th Amendment)
President Taft lost support of the progressives and a split developed in the Republican Party. (When he switched to a high tariff point of view.)
When Taft retained control of the Republican Party Roosevelt started a third party called the "Progressive Party" or "Bull Moose" Party.
Bull-Moose Republicans and TR adopted a platform calling for numerous reforms.
TR's campaign slogan "New Nationalism" stood for TR's battle for more Progressive measures and more social reform.
The Party adopted as its emblem the bull moose as a tribute to TR.
Wilson as the Democratic Candidate for President took up the slogan
"New Freedom" and got the support of the majority of voters.
(He was an idealist____?____) look up def.
SECTION SIX: WILSON'S "NEW FREEDON" EXPANDS OPPORTUNITIES FOR AMERICANS
Wilson recommended a positive program to promote the public welfare.
Tariff reform: Wilson was against tariffs
(thought it was only good for the trusts)
Underwood Tariff Act: reduced tariffs more than any tariff act had in the previous 50 yrs. and lowered duties on 100's of items.
Federal Reserve Act: Provided for the establishment of 12 Federal Reserve Districts each with a Federal Reserve Bank.
In addition to controlling the amt. of money in circulation, it regulates prime interest rates, which influence the total economy.
Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914: it put teeth in older Sherman Antitrust Act.
Federal Trade Commission: advise and regulate industries engaged in interstate and foreign trade.
1916 election: Democratic Party adopted the slogan "He kept us
out of war".
Wilson wins a close election!